Third semester

  • Common Phrasal Verbs. Note: get on with; look after, fed up with, put off, make up, etc.
  • Verb + Gerund. Note: like doing, enjoy doing, go swimming, etc.
  • Verb + Infinitive. Note: hope to do, want to do, manage to do, etc.
  • Basic Verb and Preposition Combinations. Note: listen to, arrive at, go through, etc.
  • Comparatives & Superlatives. Note: taller than, more beautiful than, as tall as, happier than, the tallest, the most difficult, etc. 

1. The alphabet.

 

English alphabet

2. Countries and nationalities.

 

This chart lists many of the countries or nations in the world, with the following information:

  • Name of country
  • Adjective used for that country (also describes nationality)
  • Noun used for a person from that country

Look at these example sentences:

She comes from France. She is French. Her nationality is French. She is a Frenchwoman. She drives a French car. She speaks French.

Country Adjective Person
Afghanistan Afghan an Afghan
Albania Albanian an Albanian
Algeria Algerian an Algerian
Andorra Andorran an Andorran
Angola Angolan an Angolan
Argentina Argentinian an Argentinian
Armenia Armenian an Armenian
Australia Australian an Australian
Austria Austrian an Austrian
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani an Azerbaijani
Bahamas Bahamian a Bahamian
Bahrain Bahraini a Bahraini
Bangladesh Bangladeshi a Bangladeshi
Barbados Barbadian a Barbadian
Belarus Belarusian or Belarusan a Belarusian or a Belarusan
Belgium Belgian a Belgian
Belize Belizean a Belizean
Benin Beninese a Beninese
Bhutan Bhutanese a Bhutanese
Bolivia Bolivian a Bolivian
Bosnia-Herzegovina Bosnian a Bosnian
Botswana Botswanan a Tswana
Brazil Brazilian a Brazilian
Britain British a Briton
Brunei Bruneian a Bruneian
Bulgaria Bulgarian a Bulgarian
Burkina Burkinese a Burkinese
Burma (official nameMyanmar) Burmese a Burmese
Burundi Burundian a Burundian
Cambodia Cambodian a Cambodian
Cameroon Cameroonian a Cameroonian
Canada Canadian a Canadian
Cape Verde Islands Cape Verdean a Cape Verdean
Chad Chadian a Chadian
Chile Chilean a Chilean
China Chinese a Chinese
Colombia Colombian a Colombian
Congo Congolese a Congolese
Costa Rica Costa Rican a Costa Rican
Croatia Croat or Croatian a Croat or a Croatian
Cuba Cuban a Cuban
Cyprus Cypriot a Cypriot
Czech Republic Czech a Czech
Denmark Danish a Dane
Djibouti Djiboutian a Djiboutian
Dominica Dominican a Dominican
Dominican Republic Dominican a Dominican
Ecuador Ecuadorean an Ecuadorean
Egypt Egyptian an Egyptian
El Salvador Salvadorean a Salvadorean
England English an Englishman, an Englishwoman
Eritrea Eritrean an Eritrean
Estonia Estonian an Estonian
Ethiopia Ethiopian an Ethiopian
Fiji Fijian a Fijian
Finland Finnish a Finn
France French a Frenchman, a Frenchwoman
Gabon Gabonese a Gabonese
Gambia, the Gambian a Gambian
Georgia Georgian a Georgian
Germany German a German
Ghana Ghanaian a Ghanaian
Greece Greek a Greek
Grenada Grenadian a Grenadian
Guatemala Guatemalan a Guatemalan
Guinea Guinean a Guinean
Guyana Guyanese a Guyanese
Haiti Haitian a Haitian
Holland (also Netherlands) Dutch a Dutchman, a Dutchwoman
Honduras Honduran a Honduran
Hungary Hungarian a Hungarian
Iceland Icelandic an Icelander
India Indian an Indian
Indonesia Indonesian an Indonesian
Iran Iranian an Iranian
Iraq Iraqi an Iraqi
Ireland, Republic of Irish an Irishman, an Irishwoman
Italy Italian an Italian
Jamaica Jamaican a Jamaican
Japan Japanese a Japanese
Jordan Jordanian a Jordanian
Kazakhstan Kazakh a Kazakh
Kenya Kenyan a Kenyan
Kuwait Kuwaiti a Kuwaiti
Laos Laotian a Laotian
Latvia Latvian a Latvian
Lebanon Lebanese a Lebanese
Liberia Liberian a Liberian
Libya Libyan a Libyan
Liechtenstein - a Liechtensteiner
Lithuania Lithuanian a Lithuanian
Luxembourg - a Luxembourger
Macedonia Macedonian a Macedonian
Madagascar Malagasy or Madagascan a Malagasy or a Madagascan
Malawi Malawian a Malawian
Malaysia Malaysian a Malaysian
Maldives Maldivian a Maldivian
Mali Malian a Malian
Malta Maltese a Maltese
Mauritania Mauritanian a Mauritanian
Mauritius Mauritian a Mauritian
Mexico Mexican a Mexican
Moldova Moldovan a Moldovan
Monaco Monégasque or Monacan a Monégasque or a Monacan
Mongolia Mongolian a Mongolian
Montenegro Montenegrin a Montenegrin
Morocco Moroccan a Moroccan
Mozambique Mozambican a Mozambican
Myanmar see Burma - -
Namibia Namibian a Namibian
Nepal Nepalese a Nepalese
Netherlands, the (seeHolland) Dutch a Dutchman, a Dutchwoman, or a Netherlander
New Zealand New Zealand (used attributively only, as in New Zealand butter but not He is New Zealand) a New Zealander
Nicaragua Nicaraguan a Nicaraguan
Niger Nigerien a Nigerien
Nigeria Nigerian a Nigerian
North Korea North Korean a North Korean
Norway Norwegian a Norwegian
Oman Omani an Omani
Pakistan Pakistani a Pakistani
Panama Panamanian a Panamanian
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinean orGuinean a Papua New Guinean or a Guinean
Paraguay Paraguayan a Paraguayan
Peru Peruvian a Peruvian
the Philippines Philippine a Filipino
Poland Polish a Pole
Portugal Portuguese a Portuguese
Qatar Qatari a Qatari
Romania Romanian a Romanian
Russia Russian a Russian
Rwanda Rwandan a Rwandan
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian or Saudi a Saudi Arabian or a Saudi
Scotland Scottish a Scot
Senegal Senegalese a Senegalese
Serbia Serb or Serbian a Serb or a Serbian
Seychelles, the Seychellois a Seychellois
Sierra Leone Sierra Leonian a Sierra Leonian
Singapore Singaporean a Singaporean
Slovakia Slovak a Slovak
Slovenia Slovene or Slovenian a Slovene or a Slovenian
Solomon Islands - a Solomon Islander
Somalia Somali a Somali
South Africa South African a South African
South Korea South Korean a South Korean
Spain Spanish a Spaniard
Sri Lanka Sri Lankan a Sri Lankan
Sudan Sudanese a Sudanese
Suriname Surinamese a Surinamer or a Surinamese
Swaziland Swazi a Swazi
Sweden Swedish a Swede
Switzerland Swiss a Swiss
Syria Syrian a Syrian
Taiwan Taiwanese a Taiwanese
Tajikistan Tajik or Tadjik a Tajik or a Tadjik
Tanzania Tanzanian a Tanzanian
Thailand Thai a Thai
Togo Togolese a Togolese
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidadian
Tobagan/Tobagonian
a Trinidadian
a Tobagan/Tobagonian
Tunisia Tunisian a Tunisian
Turkey Turkish a Turk
Turkmenistan Turkmen or Turkoman a Turkmen or a Turkoman
Tuvalu Tuvaluan a Tuvaluan
Uganda Ugandan a Ugandan
Ukraine Ukrainian a Ukrainian
United Arab Emirates (UAE) UAE or Emirates (used attributively only, as in UAE buildings, Emirates holidaysbut not He is UAE, I am Emiratesor Emirati an Emirati
United Kingdom (UK) UK (used attributively only, as in UK time but not He is UKor British a Briton
United States of America (USA) US (used attributively only, as in US aggression but notHe is US) a US citizen
Uruguay Uruguayan a Uruguayan
Uzbekistan Uzbek an Uzbek
Vanuatu Vanuatuan a Vanuatuan
Vatican City - -
Venezuela Venezuelan a Venezuelan
Vietnam Vietnamese a Vietnamese
Wales Welsh a Welshman, a Welshwoman
Western Samoa Western Samoan a Western Samoan
Yemen Yemeni a Yemeni
Yugoslavia Yugoslav a Yugoslav
Zaire Zaïrean a Zaïrean
Zambia Zambian a Zambian
Zimbabwe Zimbabwean a Zimbabwean

3. Days of the week.

 

4. Months of the year.

 

The months of the year originated as a way to mark time and break up the long seasons into shorter periods based on the Moon’s cycle around the Earth.

Our modern Gregorian calendar has twelve months, of either 28, 30 or 31 days during the common year. Nearly every 4 years is aLeap Year when an extra (intercalary) day is added at the end of February, the Leap Day on 29 February.A month is a unit of time that was first used and invented in Mesopotamia to measure the natural period related to the cycle of the moon.

The Gregorian and the Julian calendar both consist of twelve months. The original Roman calendar consisted of 10 named months and two unnamed months. The year also began in March or “Martius” because this was the time when spring began. The months of January (Januarius) and February (Februarius) were added to the calendar during the Julian calendar reform around 700 BCE by Numa Pompiliius, the second king of Rome.  January also became the starting month of the year.

The addition of January and February moved the months September, October, November and December to no longer correspond with their meaning. The months from September through December have names that mean the seventh through tenth months of the Roman calendar.

There are many calendars that use months to divide up the year such as the Islamic calendar, the Hebrew calendar, and the Hindu calendar to just name a few. Although the Gregorian calendar is the most commonly used calendar today, other calendars are still used to calculate certain holidays and annual feasts to correspond with the Gregorian calendar.

 

 

5. Ordinal and cardinal numbers.

 

cardinal number tells "how many." Cardinal numbers are also known as "counting numbers," because theyshow quantity.

Here are some examples using cardinal numbers:

  • 8 puppies
  • 14 friends

 

Ordinal numbers tell the order of things in a set—first, second, third, etc. Ordinal numbers do not show quantity. They only show rank or position.

Here are some examples using ordinal numbers:

  • 3rd fastest
  • 6th in line

6. Greetings.

 

Greeting is an act of communication in which human beings (as well as other animalsintentionally make their presence known to each other, to show attention to, and to suggest a type of relationship or social status between individuals or groups of people coming in contact with each other. While greeting customs are highlyculture- and situation-specific and may change within a culture depending on social status and relationship, they exist in all known human cultures. Greetings can be expressed both audibly and physically, and often involve a combination of the two. This topic excludes military and ceremonial salutes but includes rituals other than gestures. A greeting can also be expressed in written communications, such as letters and emails.

Greetings are often, but not always, used just prior to a conversation.

Some epochs and cultures have had very elaborate greeting rituals, e.g., greeting of a king.

 

 

Everyday Greetings

 morning
 "Good morning."
 afternoon
 "Good afternoon."
 evening
 "Good evening."
Goodbye
 "Goodbye."
night
+
Goodbye
 "Good night."
night
+
bed
"Good night."

 

Special Greetings

Santa Claus  "Happy Christmas." or  "Merry Christmas."
00.01 - 1st January  "Happy New Year!"
Easter  "Happy Easter."
drivetest or Testetc....  "Good Luck!"
PassTest orGraduation etc...  "Congratulations!" or  "Well done!"
Get well  "Get well soon."

7. Personal information.

 

Personal information questions are the basis for any conversation in English and so are important for when you meet somebody for the first time. They are the building blocks from which the rest of the conversation can develop.

Some common questions and a correct form for the answer are as follows:
Notice that we are giving our answers in complete sentences to practice using them though normally we only give short answers.

 

 

The structure of the question may be very different to your own native languages but there are rules concerning the structure of sentences in English.

For more information regarding the correct use of the question words such as WhatWhereHow andWhen refer to our student notes on Question Words.

For more information regarding the correct us of do/does in questions refer to our student notes on Do vs. Does.

With just a little practice you can become very good at asking and answering these basic questions with any native English speaker. Try them the next time you meet an English speaker and you may make a new friend.

 

8. To be in present.

El verbo "to be" en inglés es equivalente a los verbos "ser" y "estar" en castellano. Su declinación en el presente del indicativo (simple present) es la siguiente:

 

Singular
Plural
I am
We are
You are
You are

He is

She is

It is

They are

 

Subjects: I, you, he, she, it, we, and they.

"You" is singular or plural.

The verb "be" changes with the subject to amis, or are.

 
 
am a teacher
teacher
You are a student.

Viera

He is a man.
man
She is a woman.
aishwarya
It is an apple.
apple
We arepeople

 teacher  I

Viera   you

I + you = we

You arestudents.
students
They areworkers.
workers
The verb "be" is the most important verb to learn in English. It's also the most complicated. In the present tense it has three forms: am, is, are. In the past tense, it has two forms: was and were. The verb "be" is also used to make the passive voice.

 

9. Simple present.

 

Simple present is also called present simple.

Time line

The simple present expresses an action in the present taking place once, never or several times. It is also used for actions that take place one after another and for actions that are set by a timetable or schedule. The simple present also expresses facts in the present.

Example.

 

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I think

Do I think ?

I do not think.

You think

Do you think?

You don't think.

he, she, it thinks

Does he, she, it think?

He, she, it doesn't think.

we think

Do we think?

We don't think.

you think

Do you think?

You don't think.

 

The simple present is used:

  1. to express habits, general truths, repeated actions or unchanging situations, emotions and wishes:
    I smoke (habit); I work in London (unchanging situation); London is a large city (general truth)
     
  2. to give instructions or directions:
    You walk for two hundred metres, then you turn left.
     
  3. to express fixed arrangements, present or future:
    Your exam starts at 09.00
     
  4. to express future time, after some conjunctions: after, when, before, as soon as, until:
    He'll give it to you when you come next Saturday.

10. Daily routines.

 

Todos los días realizamos una serie de acciones que se repiten continuamente, estas son conocidas como “Daily Routines” las cuales en la mayoría de los casos están relacionadas con la hora. 

EXAMPLES:

Every day I get up at eight o´clock, I have a shower at quarter past eight.  After this, I get dressed with my school uniform.  I have breakfast at a half past eight.  I go to school at quarter to nine; I go home at four o´clock in the afternoon.  At half past five, I play in the park with my friends.  I go to bed at nine o´clock.

Recuerda que para expresar rutinas y acciones que suceden usualmente se usa el tiempo “Presente simple”, los ejercicios de esta webquest están dirigidos a alumnos con un nivel básico, si quieren aprender más acerca del presente simple y sus usos y/o estructura; pueden consultar las siguientes paginas web abajo citadas en recursos.

Wake up                                                                  Do the washing up

Have breakfast                                                       Have a rest

Have a shower                                                       Help the mother

Go to the toilet                                                      Have a sandwich

Get dressed                                                            Read a book

Comb the hair                                                        Do the homework

Brush the teeth                                                     Go out/go for a walk

Tidy the room                                                        Watch TV

Go to school                                                           Write on the diary

Do the cooking                                                      Go to bed

Have lunch                                                              Play in the park

 

11. Physical appearance or descriptions.

Physical characteristics can include a variety of things. Hairstyles and facial features play a big role, but aren’t the main ones. Physical characteristics are what you see with the naked eye. They encompass anything you can describe about a person or group of people, just on sight.

 

Physical characteristics are defining traits or features about your body.

The first thing you see when you look at someone could be their hair, clothes, nose, or figure. These are all examples of physical characteristics.

To get good examples of physical characteristics you should look at a person's face, how tall they are, and what they are wearing.

For example:

 

Build Characteristics

  • Plump
  • Stocky
  • Overweight
  • Fat
  • Slim
  • Trim
  • Skinny
  • Buff
  • Well built

Height Characteristics

  • Short
  • Tall
  • Petite
  • Average height

Complexion Characteristics

  • Dark
  • Light
  • Fair
  • Olive
  • Pale
  • Tan
  • Pimply
  • Freckles
  • Spots
  • Pimples

Hair Characteristics

  • Blond
  • Fair
  • Red
  • Brown
  • Black
  • Grey
  • White
  • Long
  • Short
  • Curly
  • Frizzy
  • Straight
  • Bald
  • Receding

12. Present continuous or progressive.

 

USE 1 Now

Use the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.

 

USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now

In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on. Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.

 

USE 3 Near Future

Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.

 

USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"

The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present, but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."

 

I) The positive form of the present continuous.

- Remember to use the Subject (this can be a subject pronoun or a noun -LESSON 1 Click AQUI) plus (+) the verb to be in the present tense (am/is/are) and complement (optional).

The following is the table of the positive form of the present continuous / progressive.

Table #1 :P ositive Form

present continuous positive

Common mistakes:

- Students forget to use the verb to be

Example:

a) My father working (INCORRECT) —> My father IS working. (Correct)

- Sometimes students do not use the -ing form.

b) Robert is play with my sister (INCORRECT) —> Robert is playING with my sister. (CORRECT)

Recuerden de no omitir el sujeto. En español “Esta comiendo” esta usando un sujeto tácito. En ingles siempre debemos decir quien hace la acción (salvo en el imperativo) Entonces en “esta comiendo” el sujeto puede ser el, ella, o ello. En ingles seria “He/she /it is eating” dependiendo del contexto.

II) The negative form of the present continuous

The negative form is used by adding “not” after the verb to be in the present tense form. You may use contractions.

Table # 2:The negative form.

Present continuous negative

Common mistakes:

-Some students place the negative first. REMEMBER TO USE THE S+V+C !!!

a) Not working my father (INCORRECT) —> My father isn’t (is + not) working (CORRECT)

- Students use the don’t/doesn’t to do the negative:

b) She doesn’t playing (INCORRECT) —> She isn’t playing (CORRECT)

III) The question form of the present continuous.

We have to put the verb to be + the subject + -ing form + the complement.

 

 

 

 

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Remember that we can use the Question words before the structure:

Examples:

- What are you doing? Answer: I am studying English with my virtual teacher.

- Where is Pedro going? Answer: He is going to the shopping mall.

Table # 3: Question form

present continuous questions (preguntas)

Present continuous short answers